Artificial Intelligence And Human Rights Issues In Cyberspace

Human rights or Civil Liberties issues are not considered in their true perspective world over. Traditionally Governments across the world have been investing heavily in knowing more and more about their citizens and residents. This hunger to know everything could have been catastrophic if civil liberties activists were not so active. Nevertheless, we are slowly moving towards a totalitarian and Orwellian world thanks to the super pervasive and intruding technologies.

We anticipated this trend way back in 2009 when we started discussing about Human Rights Protection In Cyberspace. Soon we realised that we need a much focused and dedicated initiative in this regard. So we launched world’s exclusive Techno Legal Centre Of Excellence For Protection Of Human Rights In Cyberspace (CEPHRC). Since then we have been continuously working to strengthen Civil Liberties and Human Rights in Cyberspace.

In the year 2019, the CEPHRC has been merged with the Techno Legal Projects Of TeleLaw Private Limited (TPL) and PTLB Projects LLP. This has been done to consolidate our Techno Legal LegalTech, EduTec, TechLaw and other similar projects. As both TPL and PTLB Projects LLP are recognised startups by Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) and MeitY Startup Hub, we are working to further rejuvenate the CEPHRC project soon.

In this post we are discussing the Techno legal issues associated with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in various fields. We are more concerned with the Human Rights and Civil Liberties implications of AI and not the friendly or non friendly aspects of AI. Just for the sake of reference, the roots of concern about AI are very old. In fact, by 1942 these concerns prompted Isaac Asimov to create the “Three Laws of Robotics” – principles hard-wired into all the robots in his fiction, intended to prevent them from turning on their creators, or allowing them to come to harm. Also philosopher Nick Bostrom has said that superintelligent AI systems with goals that are not aligned with human ethics are intrinsically dangerous unless extreme measures are taken to ensure the safety of humanity. He believes that we should assume that a ‘superintelligence’ would be able to achieve whatever goals it has. Therefore, it is extremely important that the goals we endow it with, and its entire motivation system, is ‘human friendly’.This takes us to the concept of friendly artificial intelligence. Eliezer Yudkowsky asserts that friendliness (a desire not to harm humans) should be designed in from the start, but that the designers should recognise both that their own designs may be flawed, and that the robot will learn and evolve over time. Thus the challenge is one of mechanism design—to define a mechanism for evolving AI systems under a system of checks and balances, and to give the systems utility functions that will remain friendly in the face of such changes.

If you are a software designer or coder you design/code the software as per your conceptions and ideals. You may create a software as open source or you may prefer to sell it as a commercial software. You may give a limited features free trial or you may give a full fledged version as a free trial. You may create the software for Linux or you may create it for Windows systems. You may create the software for a particular country or language or you may create a global software with multiple languages. In short, no two software are created with same ideology and objectives. What is more concerning is the fact that we create things keeping in mind our own experience, ideology, political allegiance, etc. We may create a software for law enforcement and intelligence agencies for the sole purpose that it can be used by them for snooping, spying or even violating the Civil Liberties of people.

However, in all these activities “Human Element” is present. Now think what would happen if a spying software is managed by an AI driven system without involvement of human beings at all? We do not wish to be alarmist in this regard but the least we can expect from the AI makers is that Human Rights and Civil Liberties safeguards are hardwired into all AI systems. We have a tendency to pass on our bias and prejudice and have a tendency to violate Human Rights of our fellow humans. Naturally we would pass these negative traits to AI too if proper safeguards are not put at place. Also using AI without adequate Cyber Security, Privacy and Data Protection is a recipe for disaster. Whether we like it or not, atrocities of Orwellian technologies would further increase in future and putting in place sound Human rights Protection in Cyberspace is essential.

We at TeleLaw Project, CEPHRC and PTLB Projects are working on these issues presently and we would come up with a sound Techno Legal Policy that would ensure Human Rights Protection in Cyberspace at large. Interested stakeholders are requested to collaborate with us in this regard so that world at large can be benefited.

Source: CEPHRC.

International Cyber Security Legal Services By LegalTech Project TeleLaw

Cyber security is a very complicated field that requires domain specific expertise. We have many good cyber security experts in India and other jurisdictions who are incessantly fighting against sophisticated and novel cyber attacks on daily basis. There are many good cyber security products and services too that can prove really handy in times of crisis. However, law and legal policies are always behind the technology in general and cyber law and cyber security in particular. These fields need yearly review and modification that are not done even for decades. The main reason why we cannot update cyber law and cyber security related laws and policies is because we do not have qualified lawyers in these fields in good numbers.

We at Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO) have more than 17 years of experience in techno legal fields like cyber law, cyber security, cyber forensics, cloud computing, privacy and data protection, etc. We have been stressing upon techno legal skills development for lawyers and legal professionals for long. That is why we have launched an online skills development project for lawyers and legal professionals so that they can upgrade their cyber skills using our online portals.

So one part of the problem pertaining to cyber law and cyber security skills has been resolved to a great extent. Now the other part is providing of qualitative cyber law and cyber security services to national and international stakeholders. Even for this problem we have provided a unique and techno legal solution.

Our LegalTech company TeleLaw Private Limited has launched a unique online initiative named TeleLaw Project that is managing global cyber law and cyber security related legal services. So any person or company from any part of the world can seek its techno legal services that too in an online environment. We have many other techno legal projects that are supporting TeleLaw Project and it has been recognised as a startup by both DPIIT and MeitY.

So the field is all set for cyber law and cyber security related legal issues. However, it is a gigantic task to managed global cyber security issues. Not only it requires a sound knowledge of techno legal aspects but it also needs a good knowledge of conflict of laws and international cooperation and norms in this regard.

We are confident that with our 17 years experience in cyber law, cyber security, cyber forensics and related fields, we would be able to manage diverse and complicated cyber security issues that would arise in near future.

Source: CEICSLI.

Virtual Law Campus Has Been Approved As An EduTech And LegalTech Startup By DPIIT And MeitY

Legal education in India needs urgent reforms as our legal courses are not only traditional but they are also academic in nature. Every year we produce many legal graduates but we do not create qualitative lawyers. In the year 2015 we decided to do something about this fact and we launched world’s first techno legal Virtual Law Campus (VLC). However, as the environment was not conducive for such a revolutionary thought and project, we deferred the VLC project for appropriate time. In the year 2019 we launched PTLB Projects LLP and our EduTech and EdTech Projects were revived to achieve great success.

But we received twin shots in our arm when both Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) and MeitY Startup Hub recognised Virtual Law Campus of PTLB as EduTech and LegalTech Startup. This means a lot to us and all those stakeholders who may associate with us in future.

We at PTLB have been managing multiple techno legal online skills development and education courses for long. For instance, the Virtual Campus of PTLB is just one of the projects that is enhancing skills of both legal and non legal professionals in fields like Cyber Law, Cyber Security, Cyber Forensics, Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud Computing, Privacy and Data Protection, Cyber Crimes Investigation, Cyber Forensics Investigations, Ethical Hacking, etc.

We invite national and international skills development and education institutions and partners to collaborate with us in our techno legal projects so that together we can manage all the above-mentioned courses.

Resolve Without Litigation (RWL) Project Of PTLB Projects And TeleLaw Pvt Ltd Recognised As A Legal Tech Startup By DPIIT And MeitY

We have been sharing information about our Legal Tech startups that have been recognised by Indian Government so far. There are other Techno Legal projects of PTLB Projects and TeleLaw Private Limited too that have also been recognised by Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) and MeitY Startup Hub. For instance, Techno Legal projects and startups like Digital Police, TeleLaw, etc have also been recognised by DPIIT and MeitY.

In this post we are discussing about our Techno Legal project named Resolve Without Litigation (RWL) that is part of both PTLB Projects and TeleLaw Pvt Ltd. Both startups have been recognised by DPIIT and both are extending their support to RWL project. RWL project is one of the online dispute resolution (ODR) projects of Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO). There are other ODR projects of P4LO too but RWL has been specifically adopted by PTLB Projects and TeleLaw Pvt Ltd for further development and launch.

We are already managing few ODR Portals that have been ensuring Access to Justice (A2J) and Justice for All (JFA). Our ODR Process is very simple and any person from any part of the world can access it and use it. It hardly takes five minutes to use the simple but elegant ODR system of PTLB Projects. And it is cost effective, less cumbersome and provides timely reliefs and remedies.

You do not even need representatives or lawyers to files the case and pursue it. We would help you at every stage of the ODR process till it is finally over. All that is needed is an ODR Clause that you can pre incorporate in your agreements or the parties to the dispute can sign the same on the spot. Even in the absence of such, our ODR portal can send request for ODR to the other party and thereafter an ODR clause can be signed. All the costs, troubles, legalities, procedures, technicalities, etc can be avoided by individuals and companies by using this ODR portal.

Since this is an online process, our Techno Legal ODR services can be availed of from any part of the world. No matter wherever you are residing, you can use the ODR portal for various types of disputes resolution. Of course, we have to take care of applicable law and jurisdictional aspects first but out Techno Legal experts are well capable of managing the same on your behalf.

We are in the process of inviting investment and funding proposals for our RWL project. Interested stakeholders can contact us with their proposals and invest in the RWL project that is not only highly profitable but heading towards becoming a global ODR portal soon.

TeleLaw Project Of PTLB Projects And TeleLaw Pvt Ltd Has Been Recognised As A Legal Tech Startup By DPIIT And MeitY

TeleLaw is one of the Techno Legal Projects of Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO) and PTLB. TeleLaw Project was launched in the month of May 2019 and in this short period it has achieved great success. TeleLaw Project has its own dedicated website and social media accounts at Twitter, LinkedIn, etc and it has already been recognised as a Legal Tech and Tech Startup by Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) and MeitY Startup Hub. TeleLaw Project is emerging as one of the fastest and most promising Legal Tech startups of the world and we intend to make India a global hub for Techno Legal Services.

Now TeleLaw Project is exploring the next stage of its growth and for that we need funding and investments from national and international stakeholders. As TeleLaw Project has already been recognised by both DPIIT and MeitY so there would not be any unfavourable taxation issues that could be faced by potential Indian and foreign investors. Any investment in TeleLaw Project would not attract “Angel Tax” as TeleLaw Project is an exempted project for that purpose.

TeleLaw Project is the exclusive Techno Legal Legal Tech and startup of the world. It is providing Techno Legal services in fields like Cyber Law, Cyber Security, Cyber Forensics, Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Machine Learning, Automation, Cloud Computing, E-Discovery, Healthcare, Agriculture, Education and Skills Development, etc. This list is just illustrative and not exhaustive and many more Techno Legal services are covered by the TeleLaw Project.

TeleLaw Project is catering to the needs of Business to Business (B2B), Business to Consumer (B2C), Business to Government (B2G) and other similar segments at national and international level. As our services can be availed bu using any method like e-mail, WhatsApp, online dispute resolution (ODR) portals, social media accounts, etc it has tremendously wide coverage and is truely global in nature.

TeleLaw project has another unique feature that very few Legal Tech startups are providing. The project is also working in the direction to ensure Access to Justice (A2J) and Justice for All (JFA) objectives. So marginalised segments from any part of the world can avail our Techno Legal services at affordable rates if they have a reference from the specified stakeholders.  The companies who have good Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds at disposal can suitably invest in TeleLaw Project so that it can serve a larger community in much better form.

Digital Police Project Of PTLB Has Been Recognised As A Tech Startup By MeitY Startup Hub

The Techno Legal journey of Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO) started in the year 2002 and since then we have launched many techno legal projects. In order to streamline all techno legal projects, P4LO formed PTLB so that a much more focused approach can be adopted. PTLB delivered many wonderful techno legal projects over a period of time and in 2019 PTLB Projects LLP was specifically incorporated so that our techno legal projects can be better implemented and managed.

We also applied for recognition of PTLB Projects LLP as a startup and DPIIT was kind enough to recognise it as a startup. Thereafter we applied for recognition of further startups before MeitY Startup Hub. Once again Indian Govt and its Ministries like MeitY supported us and recognised Digital Police as a Tech Startup of India. With this our techno legal efforts to fight against cyber crimes and cyber attacks in India have been recognised by both DPIIT and MeitY and we at PTLB Projects are thankful to them for this.

So what exactly the Digital Police startup do? The Digital Police project is helping national and international stakeholders to fight against cyber crimes, cyber attacks, social engineering, phishing and spear phishing scams, debit and credit card frauds, spreading of cyber law and cyber security awareness, etc. Further, Digital Police project is also supported by other Techno Legal Projects and Startups of PTLB Projects.

Now that the first stage is over, we are working to give it a legal status too. We would incorporate the project in one form or another so that the project can grow at global level. We are also inviting collaboration and investment proposals from national and international stakeholders. Interested stakeholders may please contact us in this regard with their proposals.

Digital Police project would also help the online education and skills development projects of PTLB and P4LO. We have been managing many portals in this regard and we have also launched few virtual campuses. We have also launched dedicated centre of excellences in various fields and they would also support Digital Police project in due course of time. We hope stakeholders would find our startups and projects helpful and useful.

Aadhaar Is Not Mandatory For Section 139AA Even After Constitution Bench Judgment And CBDT Notification Opines Praveen Dalal

The first official interpretation of majority judgment of Supreme Court in Aadhaar case has been given by Praveen Dalal and Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO). The same covers legal and constitutional interpretation of Section 139AA of Income Tax Act and its analysis by the Supreme Court.

This legal analysis is subject to the following two caveats:

(1) We are not giving all the legal reasons and Constitutional position regarding Constitutionality of section 139AA at this stage and would come up with the same at a latter stage after getting official response of Indian Government.

(2) We are also not discussing the Per Incuriam aspect of the majority judgment of Supreme Court that we would discuss at appropriate stage.

The conclusion of this interpretation is that Aadhaar is absolutely optional for Section 139AA and other tax and financial regulations purposes and people have a choice to refuse to enroll and use (if already enrolled) Aadhaar for these purpose.

Anticipating harassment at the hands of Indian Govt and tax authorities, we have introduced a two tier dispute resolution mechanism. This is as follows:

(1) Send this “Legal Analysis” (Pdf) of Section 139AA to any person or authority that demands enrollment, quoting or linking of Aadhaar with PAN or tax return, and

(2) If they persist in their illegal and unconstitutional demand for Aadhaar, use the Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Portal of PTLB to fight such demands.

Please note that this legal analysis is “Not a Legal Opinion” and you have to approach us separately for that purpose.

Also the ODR Portal is a professional service of PTLB that you can use after engaging us in our professional capacity. 

We hope this legal analysis and consumer empowering portal of PTLB would help you in protecting your statutory and Fundamental Rights.

Update: 01-04-2019

(1) On 31-03-2019, the CBDT/Income Tax Department has issued a notification that has extended the last date to link Aadhaar with PAN to 30-09-2019. So nobody can touch your PAN till 30-09-2019 and thereafter the date would be extended again. This is an endless process and citizens can safely presume that nothing adverse would happen to their PAN for not linking it with Aadhaar.

(2) By the same notification it has been mandated that quoting the Aadhaar number would be mandatory to file tax returns from 01-04-2019 onwards.

(3) Quoting of Aadhaar has been made mandatory for filing of both online as well as offline/paper based tax returns.

Despite this much anticipated development, we believe that Aadhaar is absolutely optional for both filing of tax returns and for linking with PAN.

We would follow this viewpoint only and would use our “ODR Portal” to fight against such illegal and unconstitutional demands of Aadhaar.